About Mahatma Gandhiji
Born: October 2, 1869, Porbandar, Kathiawar Agency (now Gujarat)
Death: January 30, 1948, Delhi
Tasks / achievements: played the most important role in the movement of independence
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was a prominent political leader of the Indian independence movement. Following the principles of satyagraha and non-violence, they played an important role in giving independence to India. These principles have inspired people in the world for civil rights and independence movement. He is also called the Father of India. In 1944, Subhash Chandra Bose addressed him with Rangoon Radio as the ‘Father of the Nation’ in the broadcast of the name of Gandhi ji.
Mahatma Gandhi is a mishra for the entire human race. He followed non-violence and truth in every circumstance and asked the people to follow them. He lived his life in virtue. He used to wear traditional Indian dress dhoti and shawl shawls. This great man, who always eats vegetarian food, has long been fasting for self-purification.
Prior to his return to India in the year 1915, Gandhī fought for the civil rights of the Indian community in South Africa as an expatriate lawyer. After coming to India, he traveled all over the country and united the farmers, laborers and workers to fight against heavy land tax and discrimination. In 1921, he took over the reins of the Indian National Congress and influenced the political, social and economic scenario of the country with his actions. He gained fame in the 1930 Salt Satyagraha and in 1942 after ‘Quit India’ movement. During many times during the freedom struggle of India Gandhi lived in jail for many years.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar, a coastal city of Gujarat in India. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the Diwan of a small principality (Porbandar) of Kathiawar during the British Raj. The mother of Mohandas, daughter of Pulleibai, belonged to the Vaish community and had a lot of religious proposition, the effect of which was young Mohandas and these values played an important role in her life. He used to keep fast on a regular basis, and in the family, when someone fell sick, he used to do his service day and night in a nursing home. In this way, Mohandas adopted natural tolerance among non-Hindus, vegetarianism, fasting for self-purification and those who followed various religions and sects.
In 1883, at the age of 13 and 13, he was married to 14-year-old Kasturba. When Mohandas was 15, his first child was born, but he survived only a few days. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, also settled in this year (1885). Later, there were four children of Mohandas and Kasturba – Harilal Gandhī (1888), Manilal Gandhī (1892), Ramdas Gandhī (1897) and Devdas Gandhi (1900).
Their middle school was educated in Porbandar and high school education was in Rajkot. Mohan Das was an average student at the academic level. In 1887, he passed the matriculation examination from Ahmedabad. After this Mohandas got admitted to Shamaldas College of Bhavnagar, but he remained unhappy due to poor health and homelessness and left college and returned to Porbandar.
Foreign Education and Advocacy
Mohandas was the most educated in his family, so his family believed that he could become the heir to his father and uncle. One of his family friends, Mawji Dave, advised that once Mohandas could become a barrister from London, he could easily get the title of Divan. His mother, Putlibai and other members of the family opposed the idea of going abroad but agreed to settle for Mohandas. In 1888 Mohandas University College went to England to study law and become a barrister. According to the promise given to his mother, he spent his time in London. There, he had difficulty relating to eating veg and had to be hungry many times in the early days. Gradually they came to know about restaurants with vegetarian food. After this he also accepted the membership of ‘Vegetarian Society’. Some members of this society were also members of the Theosophical Society and they suggested Mohandas to read the Gita.
Gandhi returned to India in June 1891 and went there to find out about his mother’s death. He started advocating in Bombay but did not get any special success. After that he went to Rajkot where he started the work of writing the lawsuits for the needy, but after some time he had to leave the work too.
After all, in 1893, an Indian firm accepted the work of advocacy on a one year contract in Netal (South Africa).
Gandhiji in South Africa
Gandhi reached South Africa at the age of 24. He went there as a judicial advisor to some Indian businessmen based in Pretoria. He spent 21 years of his life in South Africa where his political ideas and leadership skills were developed. In South Africa, they had to face severe racial discrimination. Once the first class coach got a valid ticket, he was thrown out of the train after refusing to go to the third class compartment. All these events became a turning point in their lives and became the cause of awareness towards the current social and political injustice. In view of the injustice done to Indians in South Africa, they have started questioning the honor of Indians and respecting themselves regarding British identity under the British Empire.
In South Africa Gandhiji inspired Indians to fight for their political and social rights. He also raised the issues relating to citizenship of the Indians in front of the South African government and actively encouraged the British authorities to recruit Indians in the war of 1906. According to Gandhi, in order to legalize the claims of citizenship, Indians should cooperate in British war efforts.
Conflicts of Indian Independence Movement (1916-1945)
In 1914, Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. By this time Gandhi had been distinguished as a nationalist leader and convener. He had come to India on the advice of moderate Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale and in the initial round Gandhi’s views were largely influenced by Gokhale’s ideas. Initially, Gandhi visited various parts of the country and tried to understand the political, economic and social issues.
Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha
The movements of Bihar’s Champaran and Kheda in Gujarat gave Gandhi the first political success in India. In Champaran, the British landowners forced the farmers to cultivate the neel instead of the food crops and used to buy the crop at cheap prices, which caused the situation of the farmers to get worse. Because of this, they became very poor. After a devastating famine, the English government imposed repressive taxes, whose burden was increasing day by day. Overall the situation was very disappointing. Gandhiji led protests and strikes against the landlords, after which the demands of the poor and the farmers were considered.
In the year 1918, Khera in Gujarat was hit by floods and drought, due to which the situation of farmers and poor became more and people started demanding apology. Under Gandhiji’s guidance in Kheda, Sardar Patel led the farmers to discuss this problem with the British. After this the British released all the prisoners by releasing revenue collection. Thus, after the rise of Champaran and Kheda, Gandhi’s fame spread across the country and he emerged as an important leader of the freedom movement.
The opportunity to increase its popularity among the Congress and the Muslims was found by Gandhiji through the Khilafat movement. The Khilafat was a worldwide movement through which the falling kingdom of the Caliph was being opposed by the Muslims of the whole world. After defeating in the First World War, the Ottoman Empire was dismantled, due to which the Muslims were concerned about the safety of their religion and religious places. In India, Khilafat was being led by All India Muslim Conference. Gradually, Gandhi became its chief spokesman. To express solidarity with Indian Muslims, they returned the honor and honor given by the British. After this, Gandhi became the sole leader of the Congress rather than the nation, whose influence was on the people of different communities.
Non cooperation movement
Gandhiji believed that in India the English was possible only with the cooperation of the ruling Indians and if we all together cooperate on everything against the British, freedom is possible then freedom is possible. The growing popularity of Gandhiji made him the Congress’s biggest leader and now he was in a position to use weapons like non-cooperation, non-violence and peaceful resistance against the British. Meanwhile, the massacre of Jalianwala caused a tremendous blow to the country, due to which the flames of anger and violence in the public rose.
Gandhiji called for indigenous policy in which to boycott foreign objects, especially English goods. He said that we should wear khadi hand made by our own people rather than the clothes made by all Indian Britishers. He asked men and women to wear cotton every day. Apart from this, Mahatma Gandhi also requested to boycott British educational institutions and courts, leave government jobs, and return back the honors and honors received from the British government.
The non-co-operation movement was getting immense success, which led to increased enthusiasm and participation in all sections of the society, but in February 1922 it ended with the Chauri-Chaura scandal. After this violent incident, Gandhi withdrew the non-cooperation movement. They were arrested and arrested for sedition, in which they were sentenced to six years imprisonment. Due to poor health, the government released him in February 1924.
Swaraj and Salt Satyagraha
Gandhi was released in February 1924 after the arrest during the non-cooperation movement, and he remained away from active politics till 1928. During this time, he was engaged in reducing the mindset between Swaraj Party and Congress and in addition to fighting against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty.
At the same time, the English government created a new constitutional reform commission for India under the leadership of Sir John Simon, but none of his members were Indian, due to which Indian political parties boycotted it. After this, in the Calcutta session of December 1, 1928, Gandhi asked the British government to give power to the Indian Empire and, if not done so, to be ready to face the non-cooperation movement for the country’s independence. The Indian flag was hoisted on 31 December 1929, when no response was received by the British, and the Congress celebrated the day of January 26, 1930 as the Indian Independence Day. After this, Gandhiji launched a salt Satyagraha against the tax on salt by the government, under which he traveled from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat, from March 12 to April 6, traveling around 388 kilometers. The purpose of this journey was to generate the salt itself. Thousands of Indians took part in this visit and were successful in disturbing the English government. During this time, the government arrested more than 60 thousand people and sent them to jail.
After this, the government, represented by Lord Irwin, decided to consult Gandhiji, which led to the signing of the Gandhi-Irwin Treaty in March 1931. Under the Gandhi-Irwin Treaty, the British government agreed to release all political prisoners. As a result of this agreement, Gandhi participated in the Round Table Conference held in London as the sole representative of the Congress, but this conference was extremely disappointing for the Congress and other nationalists. After this Gandhi was again arrested and the government tried to crush the nationalist movement.
In 1934, Gandhi resigned from the Congress membership. Instead of political activities, he has now focused his attention on the creation of the ‘from the lowest level’ nation through ‘creative programs’. He started the education system to educate rural India, to continue the movement against untouchables, to spinning, weaving and other cottage industries and to create an education system suited to the needs of the people.
As a result of the efforts of Dalit leader B.R. Ambedkar, the English Government approved separate elections under the new Constitution for untouchables. In Yerawada jail, Gandhiji fasted for six days in protest of this in September 1932 and forced the government to adopt a uniform system (Poona Pact). This was the beginning of the campaign run by Gandhiji to improve the lives of untouchables. On May 8, 1933, Gandhi fasted 21 days for self-purification and started a one-year campaign to pursue the Harijan movement. Dalit leaders such as Ambedkar were not happy with this movement and condemned Gandhiji for using the word Harijan for the Dalits.
World War II and ‘Quit India Movement’
At the beginning of World War II, Gandhiji wanted to give ‘non-violent moral cooperation’ to the British, but many of the Congress leaders were unhappy that without the consultation of the representatives of the people, the government had torched the country in war. Gandhi announced that on one side India was denied the freedom and on the other hand India was being included in the war to win democratic forces. As the war grew, Gandhiji and Congress intensified the demand for ‘Quit India’ movement.
The ‘Quit India’ became the most powerful movement of the struggle for independence movement, which saw widespread violence and arrest. In this struggle thousands of freedom fighters were either killed or injured and thousands were arrested. Gandhiji had made it clear that he would not support the British war effort until the immediate freedom of India was given. He had also said that despite the personal violence this movement would not be closed. He believed that the government chaos prevailing in the country is also dangerous than the true chaos. Gandhiji asked all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline with non-violence or do or die (do or die).
As everyone was convinced, the English government arrested all the members of Gandhiji and the Congress Working Committee on 9th August 1942 in Mumbai and Gandhiji was taken to the Aunga Khan Palace in Pune, where he was held captive for two years. Meanwhile, his wife Kasturba Gandhi died on February 22, 1944, and after some time Gandhiji also suffered from malaria. The British could not leave them in jail in this condition, therefore they were released on May 6, 1944 for necessary treatment. Despite the astounding success, the Quit India Movement organized India and by the end of World War II, the British Government had given a clear indication that the power would soon be handed over to the Indians. Gandhiji ended the Quit India Movement and the government released about one lack political prisoners.
Partition and independence of the country
As has been said before, when the end of World War II, the British government had indicated to liberate the country. Alongwith the movement of India’s independence, the demand of a ‘separate Muslim majority country’ (Pakistan) under the leadership of Jinna had intensified, and in the 40’s, these forces demanded a separate nation ‘Pakistan’ in reality. Had changed. Gandhiji did not want to divide the country because it was quite different from the principle of his religious unity but this did not happen and the British divided the country into two pieces – India and Pakistan.
Assassination of Gandhiji
On January 30, 1948, the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi was murdered at 5:17 pm in ‘Birla House’ of Delhi. Gandhiji was going to address a prayer meeting when his murderer Nathuram Godse blasted 3 bullets in the chest of the chest. It is believed that ‘Hey Ram’ was the last word from his mouth. Nathuram Godse and his associate were prosecuted and sentenced to death in 1949.
Even though Bapu’s ideas are not with people today, people are at least aware of him because of his picture on India’s currency. If you want to know and understand Bapu in the right way, then take his ideas into his life, which people have given the name of Gandhigiri. Mahatma Gandhi’s words may be small but his learning is very big.